Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Other terms used are malignant tumour and neoplasms. One defining feature of cancer is the rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs; the latter process is referred to as metastasis. Widespread metastases are the primary cause of death from cancer.
Early and accurate diagnosis of cancer is crucial for effective treatment and improved patient outcomes. To diagnose cancer, medical professionals use a variety of diagnostic tools and technologies. Some of the most common cancer diagnostic equipment include imaging tests, biopsy procedures, and laboratory tests.Recently there has been many advancements in diagnosis techniques and equipment.
Cancer cannot be accurately diagnosed by a single test. A thorough history and physical examination, as well as diagnostic tests, are typically necessary for a patient's full evaluation. To assess whether a person has cancer or whether another disorder (such an infection) is imitating the symptoms of cancer, numerous tests are required.
Effective diagnostic testing is used to confirm or rule out the presence of disease, track the progression of the condition, and organize and assess treatment. When a patient's condition changes, a poor-quality sample was obtained, or an aberrant test result needs to be validated, it may be essential to repeat the test.
Imaging, laboratory tests (including tests for tumor markers), tumor biopsy, endoscopic examination, surgery, or genetic testing are all examples of diagnostic techniques for cancer.
These are some of the latest and advanced diagnostic tools for cancer. However, it is important to note that not all of these tools are suitable for all patients and cancer types, and a combination of multiple diagnostic methods may be needed for an accurate diagnosis.