Prenatal Ultrasound for detection of early signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Posted on 20/04/2022

Autism spectrum disorder is a brain development disorder that affects how a person perceives and interacts with others, resulting in social interaction and communication issues. Limited and repetitive patterns of conduct are also part of the illness. In autism spectrum disorder, the term "spectrum" refers to the vast range of symptoms and severity.

Autism spectrum disorder encompasses illnesses such as autism, Asperger's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and an unidentified form of the pervasive developmental disease that was previously thought to be distinct. Some people still refer to autism spectrum disorder as "Asperger's syndrome," which is considered to be on the milder end of the spectrum.

Autism spectrum condition manifests itself in early life and leads to difficulties in social, educational, and occupational settings. Autism signs appear in youngsters as early as the first year of life. A tiny percentage of children appear to develop normally in the first year, but subsequently regress between the ages of 18 and 24 months, when they begin to show signs of autism.

Risks Factors Involved in ASD

According to current research, multiple genetic variables may interact to enhance the chance of autism in a complex way. Certain genetic disorders, such as Fragile X Syndrome and Tuberous Sclerosis, have been linked to an increased risk of developing autism. Certain drugs, such as valproic acid and thalidomide, have been associated with an increased risk of autism when used during pregnancy. Having an autistic sibling increases the chances of a child being diagnosed with autism. The age of the parents at the time of conception is also associated to a higher incidence of autism. Vaccines, on the other hand, haven't been demonstrated to raise the likelihood of an autism diagnosis, and neither does race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Male children are diagnosed with autism more frequently than those born with feminine sex, yet this ratio is shifting with time.

Benefits of Early Intervention using Ultrasound Scans

Early autism diagnosis and intervention are more likely to have significant long-term beneficial benefits on symptoms and subsequent skills, according to research. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be diagnosed in children as young as two years old. Some children with ASD, whose development has been normal up to that point, begin to regress shortly before or around the age of two.

According to a new study by experts routine ultrasound scans during the second trimester can detect early signs of autism spectrum disease (ASD), enabling early intervention. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have more rapidly growing brains and bodies at the beginning of the second trimester than children without the disorder, new research suggests.

While some studies imply that autism is caused by a genetic predisposition, there is little solid evidence linking fetal abnormalities to autism in children later diagnosed. Research in this area could help expecting parents and clinicians plan interventions to lessen autism symptoms as early as birth, rather than waiting until the child is two years old or older. The researchers discovered fetal ultrasonography defects in 29.3% of those with autism, compared to only 15.9% and 9.5 percent of their closest-in-age siblings and generally developing children, respectively, after examining the ultrasounds. Autism was also linked to abnormalities in the urinary system, heart, skull, and brain, according to the researchers.

In comparison to normally developing fetuses, those with autism tended to have a narrower head and a relatively broader ocular distance. Other findings included 43.1 percent of girls with autism having abnormalities, compared to only 25.3 percent of boys with autism. The other groups, on the other hand, showed no distinction between males and females.
Early identification and treatment of autistic children can considerably improve their social abilities.